​Domestic workers in Russia and Kazakhstan. Migration Research Center - UN Women. Almaaty. 2014.

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Contents

Introduction p. 4
I. Methodology p. 5
1.1 Definitions and types of occupation in the area of domestic work p. 5
1.2. Data sources p. 6
1.3 Research methods p. 6
1.4 Research stages p. 7
II. Policies and regulations concerning domestic work in Russia and Kazakhstan compared with international practices p. 9
2.1. Regulations governing domestic work in the Russian Federation p. 9
2.1.1. Russian legislation on labour and employment p. 9
2.1.2. Russian legislation on labour migration p. 9
2.2. Regulations governing domestic work in the Republic of Kazakhstan p. 11
2.2.1. Kazakhstan legislation on labour and employment p. 11
2.2.2. Kazakhstan legislation covering domestic work p. 11
2.3. International experience of regulating domestic work p. 12
III. Profiles of domestic workers in the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan p. 15
3.1. Countries of origin p. 15
3.2. Age, gender and family status of the respondents p. 15
3.3. Educational level and Russian-language skills p. 17
3.4. Prior-migration experience p. 18
3.5. Motivation and migration experience p. 19
IV. Documents and status of migrant domestic workers in the destination countries p. 21
4.1. Residence and work permits p. 21 4.2. Health certificates p. 23
4.3. Employment status p. 23
V. Employment relations and working conditions of domestic workers p. 25
5.1. Areas of employment and job search p. 25
5.2. Contract with an employer (and its content) p. 27
5.3. Wages of domestic workers and social benefits provided by the employer p. 33
5.4. Competition in the domestic labour market p. 37
5.5. Working conditions and working schedule p. 39
VI. Living conditions and health status p. 42
6.1. Living conditions of domestic workers p. 42
6.2. Domestic workers’ health and access to medical services p. 43
VII. Protection of the rights of domestic workers, conflicts and security p. 45
7.1. Protection of rights p. 45
7.2. Conflicts p. 50
7.3. Security p. 54
VIII. Integration challenges and plans for the future p. 58
Conclusions and recommendations p. 62
Main conclusions based on the results of the research p. 62
Recommendations p. 65
Recommendations for improving the regulation of domestic work in Russia p. 66
Recommendations for improving the regulation of domestic work in Kazakhstan p. 67